Different elements of Computer

Following is the different elements of Computer

The main elements of a computer include ALU (Arithmetic & Logic Unit), Memory or Storage Unit, Control Unit and Input & Output Devices (I/O Devices). The memory unit, control unit and ALU are clubbed as a Central Processing Unit (CPU).

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • The CPU is considered as the brain of the computer.
  • It controls all parts of the computer including data processing (like storing data, retrieving data, executing data).

Control Unit

  • It performs all the tasks, except the data processing.
  • It obtains the instructions from the memory, intercepts it and directs the received operation.
  • It also communicates with the input and output devices, and also regulates the transfer of data.


  • It is a circuit that performs arithmetic and logical functions.
  • The arithmetic function involves mathematical functions like subtraction, addition, division, multiplication, etc.
  • The logical function also involves functions like selecting, matching, sorting, etc.

I/O Unit

  • The devices which are used to input the data and the programs in the computer are known as “Input Devices”. Or Input device can read data and convert them to a form that a computer can use.
  • Output Device can produce the final product of machine processing into a form usable by humans.
  • It provides man to machine communication.
  • Keyboard, mouse, scanner are the examples.

Memory Unit

  • Memory unit is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. The data storage is in binary digits 0 & 1.
  • The computer’s memory unit consists of RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (read Only Memory).
  • The RAM first gets an instruction which then passes to the processor which processes and sends back. The Random access memory is also called as Read/Write memory, which is the temporary memory of a computer.
  • The ROM is a special memory which is read only memory, writing and erasing is not possible by user without specialized equipment. Read only memory can be manufacturer-programmed or user-programmed only.

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