Following is the different elements of Computer
The main elements of a computer include ALU (Arithmetic & Logic Unit), Memory or Storage Unit, Control Unit and Input & Output Devices (I/O Devices). The memory unit, control unit and ALU are clubbed as a Central Processing Unit (CPU).
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
- The CPU is considered as the brain of the computer.
- It controls all parts of the computer including data processing (like storing data, retrieving data, executing data).
- It performs all the tasks, except the data processing.
- It obtains the instructions from the memory, intercepts it and directs the received operation.
- It also communicates with the input and output devices, and also regulates the transfer of data.
- It is a circuit that performs arithmetic and logical functions.
- The arithmetic function involves mathematical functions like subtraction, addition, division, multiplication, etc.
- The logical function also involves functions like selecting, matching, sorting, etc.
- The devices which are used to input the data and the programs in the computer are known as “Input Devices”. Or Input device can read data and convert them to a form that a computer can use.
- Output Device can produce the final product of machine processing into a form usable by humans.
- It provides man to machine communication.
- Keyboard, mouse, scanner are the examples.
- Memory unit is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. The data storage is in binary digits 0 & 1.
- The computer’s memory unit consists of RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (read Only Memory).
- The RAM first gets an instruction which then passes to the processor which processes and sends back. The Random access memory is also called as Read/Write memory, which is the temporary memory of a computer.
- The ROM is a special memory which is read only memory, writing and erasing is not possible by user without specialized equipment. Read only memory can be manufacturer-programmed or user-programmed only.