Generations of Computer
The ancient computers occupied more space. So it took 5 generations to become the modern day computer. The generations of computer are discussed below as follows
First Generation Computer
- Period: 1940-1956.
- They used Vacuum tubes as their basic component for circuitry and magnetic drum for their memory.
- They produced more heat, so needed cooling devices. They consumed huge electricity, occupied huge spaces, huge costs, etc.
- Machine code was used as programming language. They could only solve one problem at a time.
- Example: ENIAC, UNIVAC
Second Generation Computer: transistors
- Period: 1956-1963.
- They used transistorsas their components as they were cheap, compact, faster programming and produced less heat than the first generation computers.
- Assembly language and high-level programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL was used.
- Example: UNIVAC 1108
Third Generation Computer
- Period: 1964-1971.
- They used Integrated circuitsinstead of transistors.
- An Integrated Circuit consists of many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry.
- The Integrated circuit was invented by Jack Kilby.
- It provided compactness, cost effectiveness, less electricity consumption, etc., High-level languages like FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68 were used.
- Example: Honeywell-6000 series
Fourth Generation Computer
- Period: 1971-1980.
- They used Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. VLSI had the capability to have numerous transistors and other circuitry on a single chip.
- It paved way for compactness, no requirement of cooling AC unit, affordable, powerful, etc.
- High-level languages like C, C++, DBASE etc., can be used.
- Example: STAR 1000
Fifth Generation Computer
- Period: 1980-present times.
- The VLSI technology was transformed into ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technologyaccommodating millions of electronic components in a chip.
- It provided way for artificial intelligence and created more powerful, compact, affordable, advanced computers.
- All high-level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net etc. can be used.
- Example: Laptops